How excessive blood sugar REALLY causes type 2 diabetes: Chemicals produced when glucose is damaged down are to blame, examine finds
- Oxford University researchers regarded into how type 2 diabetes progresses
- Found chemical compounds launched when sugar is damaged down cause sufferers’ decline
- Discovery may lead to new remedies that would sluggish the condition’s results
For a long time, scientists have been puzzled over how precisely excessive blood sugar causes type 2 diabetes.
But Oxford University researchers could lastly have the reply.
Tests revealed it wasn’t the elevated glucose ranges that have been instantly to blame for the pancreas being robbed of its insulin-making skill.
Instead, they discovered glucose metabolites — the chemical compounds launched when sugar is damaged down — fairly than glucose itself is behind the decline.
The discovery may lead to diabetes sufferers being given new remedies to sluggish down glucose metabolism, stopping the condition getting worse, they stated.
Type 2 diabetes impacts roughly 2million individuals in Britain and 37million within the US. It happens when blood sugar is simply too excessive, which may lead to issues together with blindness, kidney failure and nerve injury if left uncontrolled.
Patients are at the moment inspired to eat nicely and train to preserve a wholesome weight to sluggish its development.
Medication like Glucophage to enhance insulin perform is normally prescribed afterward if weight-reduction plan and train is just not efficient alone.
However, the most recent analysis may lead to new medicine that would cease the illness getting to that time within the first place.
Oxford University researchers discovered glucose metabolites — the chemical compounds launched when sugar is broke down — fairly than glucose itself is behind type 2 diabetes development
WHAT IS TYPE 2 DIABETES?
Type 2 diabetes is a condition which causes an individual’s blood sugar to get too excessive.
More than 4million individuals within the UK are thought to have some kind of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is related to being chubby and chances are you’ll be extra seemingly to get it if it is within the household.
The condition means the physique doesn’t react correctly to insulin – the hormone which controls absorption of sugar into the blood – and can’t correctly regulate sugar glucose ranges within the blood.
Excess fats within the liver will increase the danger of creating type 2 diabetes because the buildup makes it tougher to management glucose ranges, and likewise makes the physique extra resistant to insulin.
Weight loss is the important thing to decreasing liver fats and getting signs underneath management.
Symptoms embrace tiredness, feeling thirsty, and frequent urination.
It can lead to extra critical issues with nerves, imaginative and prescient and the center.
Treatment normally entails altering your weight-reduction plan and way of life, however extra critical circumstances could require remedy.
Source: NHS Choices; Diabetes.co.uk
Co-author Professor Frances Ashcroft, a physiologist, stated: ‘This is doubtlessly a helpful manner to strive to stop beta-cell decline in diabetes.
‘Because glucose metabolism usually stimulates insulin secretion, it was beforehand hypothesised that growing glucose metabolism would improve insulin secretion in T2D [type 2 diabetes] and glucokinase activators have been trialled, with various outcomes.’
She added: ‘Our data suggests that glucokinase activators could have an adverse effect and, somewhat counter-intuitively, that a glucokinase inhibitor might be a better strategy to treat T2D.
‘Of course, it would be important to reduce glucose flux in T2D to that found in people without diabetes — and no further.
‘But there is a very long way to go before we can tell if this approach would be useful for treating beta-cell decline in T2D.
‘In the meantime, the key message from our study if you have type 2 diabetes is that it is important to keep your blood glucose well controlled.’
The examine, revealed within the journal Nature Communications, regarded on the results of hypoglycaemia — excessive blood sugar — in diabetic mice.
They measured how a lot insulin the mice launched when given sugar for these with low blood glucose and people with persistent hypoglycaemia.
Mice got medicine that blocked glucokinase — an enzyme that aids the break down of blood glucose — for 2 days to see whether or not it was glucose or the break down of glucose that causes the usually decrease ranges of insulin in these with hypoglycaemia.
Results confirmed the drug had little impact on the low blood sugar mice however ‘largely prevented the dramatic discount in GSIS and insulin content material produced by persistent hyperglycaemia’.
This decrease ranges of insulin in these with hypoglacaemia was being attributable to the breakdown of glucose, not the sugar itself, the workforce stated.
When individuals eat carbohydrates, the meals is damaged down into blood sugar. This tells the pancreas to launch insulin, which permits glucose to enter the physique’s cells.
But over time, excessive blood sugar ranges can cause insulin resistance.
Because the insulin is not as efficient at breaking down the sugars, it causes the physique to produce increasingly of it.
Eventually, this leads to the pancreas turning into worn out, sending the system out of whack and inflicting blood sugar ranges to keep excessive.